Urinary System Diseases
The kidneys are the imperative part of the urinary framework. Blood moving through vessels in renal corpuscles conveys abundance water and certain different constituents. These are sifted through and gathered by a funnellike case, from which the filtrate streams into the kidney tubules. The cells coating these tubules select part of the water and the materials still of utilization o the body, giving back these in answer for the circulation system. Squander material goes on down the tubules into the kidney pelvis, and from that point through the ureter to the bladder and out of the body through the urethra. These waste materials in arrangement are the pee. Investigation of the pee as a rule uncovers any illness of the urinary framework.
Maladies of the ureters and urethra are remarkable, with the exception of when they are influenced by kidney or bladder ailment. The main essential urethral contamination which does not concern bladder or kidneys is brought on by gonorrhea, which managed in section 39, “Venereal contaminations.” One of the normal inconveniences of ignored gonorrhea is urethral stricture, which is talked about in part 32, “Sicknesses of the male sex organs.”
Bed-wetting is really not a disease, but a symptom. It is considered here, because it is a problem in many families. At age two, about40 percent of children wet their beds at night. By age four and one half, 12 percent are still bed-wetters, and by age eight, 7 percent. A few children do not gain control of the bladder-emptying function until about age 12.
Doubtless several factors cause the problem of late bladder control. Some bed-wetting children sleep very soundly part of the time, and this may interfere with the development of the control pattern by which the brain overrules the emptying reflex even during sleep. In some cases the bladder’s capacity does not increase in proportion to general body growth.
In an estimated 20 percent of cases, a hindrance to free flow of urine exists some where between the bladder and the outside. This may not hinder the emptying of the child’s bladder when he is awake, but it disturbs the functional balances enough to cause bed-wetting at night. The hindrance may consist of simple folds in the membrane that lines the urethra. It may consist of a narrow place (stricture) along the course of the urethra or of a unusually small opening at the external end of the urethra, diabetes, when present, cause the person to drink more water and thus to have more urine to expel. Emotional problems were formerly blamed for many cases of bed-wetting, but it is now believed that bed-wetting of itself is not proof that a child is emotionally distraught.
What To Do
# Do not punish a child who wets the bed. He does not do this intentionally; it is uncomfortable to him. Be sympathetic and solicit his cooperation in overcoming the problem.
# Establish a program to increase the bladder capacity. By deliberately emptying the bladder less frequently during the day time the bladder stretches to accommodate a larger volume of urine, and this stimulates its growth.
# Urologists also use the drug imipramine(Tofranil) in the treatment of bed-wetting cases.